Gramsci seems to have transformed the traditional or orthodox Marxian view on the relationship between the base and the superstructure at the face of social situations at his time, such as the rise of Fascism and tardy (or seemingly unattainable) collapse of capitalism. His whole revision of Marxist theory on base/superstructure and the state/civil society might be working as a radical but necessary reform of strategy for socialist revolution. As a result, he elucidates how the superstructure of civil society is strong enough to endure the fierce attack or economic failure and thus why ‘war of position’ rather than ‘war of maneuver’ is more important in holding hegemony in the advanced capitalist society. Is this strategy (war of position) still effective in the late capitalist state where civil society is more open and democratic than his time, if this flexibility of civil society means fragility of this domain?  Or has the superstructure of civil society been reinforced through overcoming continual crises? 


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